1) Handheld  MicroBuoy


Features
✔ Easy deployment in water bodies
✔ Bluetooth and WIFI connectivity
✔ Custom made microcontroller
✔ Solar panels to recharge the batteries
✔ Weights about 1 pound
✔ On board batteries run 6 months on single charge
✔ Mobile app integration
✔ Ph and temperature sensors


             Real time water monitoring with the goal of notifying a user of the water quality parameters is a key requirement of today’s world. The unevenness of the parameters in the water caused via the growth of industrialization and agriculture waste directly releases into the water bodies. These compounds are toxic which is affecting the human health, plants, and aquatic species. Therefore, it is an essential task to monitor toxic contaminants such as Orthophosphates (basically comes from agriculture farms in water bodies which cause the overgrowth of algae), E-coli (generally run off from sewage water), Heavy Metals (Lead and Arsenic).

          The current practices for water quality assessment rely on few fixed quality monitoring techniques (lab-grade equipment’s), where testing equipment is stationary and samples provided to testing locations. Although this approach of detection is reliable, but it is labor intensive and time consuming, which counterfeit the idea of on spot detection. Therefore, to control these harmful contaminants (Phosphorous, E-coli, heavy metals), a smart system is required that can provide continuous data about the water quality without any human effort. At present, an autonomous system such as Internet of Things (IoT) has been proliferating significantly in smart sensing domain which has a potential to reduce overall cost as well as risk where direct human control is not possible.

          At present water bodies, such as Great Lakes are suffering by the accumulation of nutrients runoff from neighboring farms which causes overgrowth of algae leading to eutrophication. Thus, a profound change in water sustainability must require by introducing real time data management through integrating new generation sensors and power source with IoT technology.


2) Autonomous full functional MicroBuoy


Features
✔ Long range communication up to 15 miles
✔ Modular design with easy replacement of sensors
✔ Ph, temperature and Conductivity sensors
✔ Integration with cloud data base
✔ Application GUI for easy access
✔ Available in two configurations anchor and floating
✔ Solar energy for recharging batteries


         Green algae posses a serious threat to water bodies due to the accumulation of orthophosphates which cause to the overgrowth of algae (harmful algae blooms) leading to eutrophication. Increase in concentration of orthophosphates poses a threat to aquatic species. Hence, leads to a question on how we can detect this contaminant which pollutes the aquatic life and environment. Therefore, phosphorus detection plays a crucial role in detecting the sources of contaminants and phosphate leaching, mostly profit and non-profit sources (industry, urban runoff, agriculture, rainfall carrying and natural decomposition of organic) are led to phosphate contamination. Thus, a continuous monitoring of these phosphate leaching should be done by developing a low cost effective and stable long-lasting phosphate sensor to detect all potential sources. For heavy metal such as Lead, we are using patterned graphene interdigitate fingers of the spacing of a few micron meters (lowest detection of the limit of Pb is 20 ppb). In this design, Pb is the only element which can deposit a conductive species across the anode and reduce the impedance of the system.

         The magnitude of the impedance is directly proportioned to the concentration of Pb. These are long life sensors until deposition takes place on the electrodes Phosphate sensor works on the Electrochemical techniques including Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry, which have ability to overcome most of limitations associated with conventional detection methods. It has been proved that these techniques are fast, portable, sensitive and most important it could be used for on spot detection of variety of water quality parameters and contaminants namely pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, heavy metals and pesticides. Integrating of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), provides an opportunity for making ultra-sensitive sensors. The tunability of the existence bandgap and functionalization of 2D materials could generate a highly sensitive detection of contaminants in water by three electrode-based sensors.

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